ENHANCING WATER USE EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF RICE CROP USING MODERN FARMING METHODS IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN, A BRIEF REVIEW

Muhammad Zeeshan Mehmood, Ghulam Qadir, Obaid Afzal, Mohamed Ali Awale, Rana Numan Ashraf

Abstract


Rice is the major staple food for billions of people worldwide. It has the social and economic impacts on people lives. Water scarcity is one of the major challenges to rice production and ultimately food security globally. For food security, it is important to explore efficient rice production technology that uses less water. Therefore, in the modern agriculture focus has been shifted towards development of water saving technologies. These methods include direct seeding, alternate wetting and drying, aerobic rice systems, use of mulches etc. These techniques reduce the water requirements and can enhance water use efficiency (W.U.E) of rice. However, yield may be compromised with these techniques, but research has been carried out to reduce yield losses and water use. Biotechnology and breeding approaches are being used to develop rice verities with drought tolerance, improved water use efficiency etc. Development and adoption of these technologies will shift the rice production from anaerobic to completely or partially aerobic systems. These techniques may reduce the water losses. In Pakistan famers are willing to adopt new technologies; however there is a need of dissemination and demonstration to adopt these technologies at farmer level to enhance crop productivity and water use efficiency. Innovative research approaches are required to fill the gaps in technological innovations and adoption


Keywords


Water Use Efficiency; Rice Seeding Methods; Water Scarcity, Irrigation

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.33865/wjb.004.03.0235

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